What do Asset Owners need to know from their Evacuation Systems?

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The ultimate user is the owner of the evacuation system. However, many specific tasks are delegated to subordinates, but conceptually speaking- all these are users, albeit with more specific wishes and requirements. The ultimate user wants to optimize the performance of the whole system holistic approach (whatever that in specific cases maybe), which means in short:

  • As little downtime as possible, both planned and unplanned
  • As many products of the required quality delivered, both on short term and on long term
  • As high as possible revenues from the system, both on short term and on long term
  • As low as possible costs (CapEx, OpEx) for the system, both on short term and on long term
  • As safe as possible operation of the system

 

 

N.B. Note that some of these requirements are conflicting, so it is important to find the global maximum for these requirements and not to optimize one or a few of these.

The following general rules are assumed to be respected:

  • Raw data are cast in stone and cannot be modified
  • Required manual updates of data (e.g. well fluid composition) can only be done by people with special authorization
  • Software updates (including changes in algorithms) can only be done by specialized people with authorization
  • Reported figures cannot be modified afterward

I want to know what each well produces on gas, oil, and water continuously with high accuracy.

I want to know what the flow rates in the individual lines are on gas, oil, and water continuously and with high accuracy.

I need to know how the central processing plant (CPP) is doing.

I want to know how much gas, oil, and water exported / own use are/flared/disposed of continuously and with high accuracy.

I want to know how much revenue gas and oil bring daily.

I want to know what the costs of own use, flaring, and disposal are every week.

“-” means more detail of a specific item.

“=” means explanation of the item.

“+” means condition(s) of satisfaction.

I want to know what each well produces on gas, oil, and water continuously with high accuracy.

  • I need a multi-phase flow measurement on each well.
    = test-separator / MPFM / wet-gas meter
    + when meter is installed and operational.
  • I need to know that this measurement works correctly.
    = Instrumentation/sensors/transmitters need verification
    + when all sensors/transmitters produce reasonable data and when of all sensors/transmitters valid calibration reports are available.
  • I need verification/calibration.
    = system to monitor data from sensors/transmitters, check the validity of calibration reports, actions to correct the situation when requirements are not fulfilled.
    + when the system makes sure that all sensors/transmitters fulfill all the requirements.
  • I need data transfer.
    =all sensor / transmitter data transferred to central processing / storage facility every 2 10 sec(?).
    + when all data are transmitted with the required speed.
  • I need data-handling
    = data processing (and algorithms) to obtain the required results
    = data analysis to verify the functioning of the individual sensors/transmitters
    = data analysis to monitor the functioning of the evacuation system
    + when the data handling provides the required results and flags incorrect or suspect functioning of sensors/transmitters or evacuation system.
  • I need database management
    = database which stores the raw data and the calculated results.
    = easy and user-friendly way to search the database.
    = easy way to present searches of the database.
    + when such a database is operational.

 

 

I want to know what the flow rates in the individual lines are on gas, oil, and water continuously and with high accuracy.

  • I need an inventory/monitoring system.
    = system with an overview of evacuation system with all its sensors /transmitters.
    = easy to modify as the evacuation system is not static.
    = has access to the database to retrieve calculated results
    + when such a system is in place and operational.
  • I need verification/modeling of the flow lines.
    = measurement and/or modeling of multi-phase flows through flow lines
    = modeling of flow line response under non-horizontal conditions.
    + when such measurements and/or models are available and accurate.
  • I need sensor / transmitter verification / calibration.
    = analysis of data from sensors/transmitters to verify whether data are reasonable.
    = system to verify the validity of calibration reports.
    = system to flag sensors/transmitters with questionable data and/or invalid calibration reports.
    + when such a system is available and operational.
  • I need an information transfer.
    = analysis can run in the background.
    = review of calibration reports
    = flags need follow-up, e.g. by e-mail to the responsible department to take action.
    + when such a system is available and operational.
  • I need data-handling
    = predictions of raw measurement data like P&T, based on flow rates, and comparison with measured values.
    = retrieval from the database.
    + when all required data are available.
  • I need database management.
    = automated searches through the database to retrieve the required information
    + when all required data can be acquired by the verification/calculation algorithms.

I need to know how the central processing plant (CPP) is doing.

  • I need the readings of all sensors and transmitters.
    = all sensor/transmitter readings need to be available on a time scale, required for control of the CPP.
    = system should send a warning to the maintenance department on sensors with possibly unreliable readings.
    = system should verify the trustworthiness of readings, flag suspect sensor readings.
    = system should shut down CPP when insufficient reliable sensor data are available.
    + when only reliable data are used for control of the CPP.
  • I need to verify/calibrate all sensors and transmitters.
    = system should verify whether readings are reasonable.
    = system should verify the validity of calibration reports.
    = system should flag sensors which calibration report will expire in a short while (e.g. two months).
    = system should inform the maintenance department of expiring calibration reports.
    = system should flag sensors with expired calibration reports.
    = system should send an alarm to the maintenance department on sensors with expired calibration reports.
    + when all sensors are verified and calibrated within the time limits.
  • I need to verify that all safety limits are OK.
    = verify that nowhere in the CPP a parameter (e.g. pressure or temperature) is outside the safety limits.
    = send an alarm to operations when a safety limit is passed.
    = shut down CPP automatically when passing of safety limit is sustained.
    + when all checks and corrective actions are in place and operational.
  • I need to know the flow rates at different locations in CPP.
    = flow rate measurement at critical locations in the CPP.
    = data should enable calculation of mass flow rate (mass balancing!).
    + when all critical flow rates can be measured and reported.
  • I need QMI at critical locations in the CPP.
    = determination of fluid properties at different locations in CPP.
    = algorithms to use the results for control of the CPP.
    = verification whether results are reasonably in line with expected and historic data.
    + when fluid properties can be determined, verified, and converted for control as frequently as necessary.
  • I need data transfer.
    = transfer of raw data
    = transfer of results to a database.
    = transfer of results to control system.
    + when all data requirements are in place and operational.
  • I need data handling.
    = conversion of QMI results to information, required for control.
    + when conversion algorithms are in place and operational.
  • I need database management.
    = storage of control history of CPP.
    = ability to retrieve dynamic properties of CPP from the database.
    + when dynamic properties of CPP can be retrieved.

 

 

I want to know how much gas, oil, and water exported / own use are /flared /disposed of continuously and with high accuracy.

  • I need highly accurate export meters.
    = US meters, turbine meters, WC meters, GC analyzers, densitometers.
    + when these meters are in place, operational, and calibrated.
  • I need continuous diagnostics.
    = system to verify readings vs. independent measurement.
    = operational data/readings from meters themselves.
    + when diagnostics are in place and operational.
  • I need verification/calibration.
    = system to verify the validity of calibration reports.
    = system to signal responsible department when calibration reports will expire in a short while (e.g. two months).
    = system to alarm responsible department when calibration reports are no longer valid
    = reconciliation over evacuation system.
    + when verification of calibration reports is in place.
  • I need meters for my own use of fuels.
    = Venturi, orifice, V-cone, wedge DP meter.
    = algorithms to calculate (mass) flow rates
    + when meters and algorithms are in place and operational.
  • I need verification/calibration for my own use meters.
    = system to verify that meter readings are reasonable.
    = system to verify that the sensors around the meters (e.g. P&T, dP) are reasonable and within the operational span.
    + when the verification system is in place and operational.
  • I need flare meters.
    = meters with a large turn-down ratio.
    = meters that can handle small amounts of liquid.
    = algorithms which can handle large fluctuations in flow rate and liquid loading.
    + when such meters and algorithms are in place and operational.
  • I need verification/calibration for the flare meters.
    = demands of the environmental agency are fulfilled.
    = contract requirements with partners are fulfilled.
    + when all third parties are satisfied/agree.
  • I need meters for the disposal of water.
    = demands of the environmental agency are fulfilled.
    + when such meters are installed and operational.
  • I need meters for the determination of pollutants in the discharged water.
    = oil-in-water measurement down to ppm-level.
    = measurement of mineral content.
    = detection of toxic substances.
    = detection of heavy metals.
    + when these measurements are in place and operational.
  • I need verification/calibration for the pollutants.
    = verification whether readings are reasonable and in line with earlier data (historic data analysis).
    + when the environmental agency is satisfied.
  • I need data transfer.
    = raw data and results from the meters should be transferred in a failsafe way to convince environmental agencies and partners that these are correct and not corrupted.
    + when the data can be transferred and stored safely under all conditions.
  • I need data handling.
    = to determine export quantities such that partners and government are convinced of the correctness of the data for sharing of revenues and taxing.
    = to determine quantitatively own use fuels.
    = to determine quantitatively all emissions into the environment.
    = to show that all emissions are within the permissions of the environmental agency / legal authorities.
    = in agreement with contracts with partners.
    = the costs of emissions can be quantified.
    + when the required data-handling is in place and operational, satisfying partners and authorities.
  • I need database management.
    = easy and user-friendly way to retrieve all required data from the database in a format that satisfies partners and authorities on the exports, own use, and emissions.
    + when a retrieval can be done on the fly.

 

 

I want to know how much revenue gas and oil bring daily.

  • I need price information continuously.
    = link to spot market (?).
    = access to agreed prices with customers.
    + when prices are available continuously.
  • I need data handling.
    = combining spot market or agreed prices with export measurement.
    + when revenues can be calculated continuously.
  • I need database management
    = all financial results stored and retrievable from the database.
    = easy and user-friendly retrieval of specific financial results from the database.
    + when database allows easy access to financial results from operations.

 

 

I want to know what the costs of own use, flaring, and disposal are every week.

  • I need price information on demand
    = access to prices of fuel when needed.
    = access to prices of emissions.
    + when there is a link to external information for fuel and emissions.
  • I need data handling.
    = calculation of the costs based on external and internal information, including the database.
    = storage of results in a database.
    + when all calculations are in place and operational.
  • I need database management
    = logical storage of financial results in a database.
    = easy and user-friendly retrieval of costs and presentation to satisfy partners.
    + when financial results can easily be found and retrieved.

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